What is Homophobia?
Homophobia is the fear or hatred of homosexuality and homosexual people. “Homophobia” is also used to describe disapproval of and prejudice or discrimination against homosexuals. When used in this way, it is aligned with terms like “gay-bashing”.
George Weinberg coined the word in the late 1960s to encompass a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.
The Greek root word 'homo' means 'the same' and the word 'phobia' comes from the Greek word ‘phóbos’ meaning 'fear.'
Symptoms of Homophobia
Extreme Anxiety, Dread
- Shortness of Breath
- Rapid Breathing
- Heart Palpitations
- Excessive Sweating
- Dry Mouth
- Confusion / Inability to Articulate Clearly
- Lack of Focus
- Feelings of Powerlessness
- Obsession with the Subject of the Phobia
- Fear or Feelings of Losing Control
- Avoidance Behavior
Causes of Homophobia
Homophobia is a social anxiety disorder. Social phobias result in avoidance of social situations due to fear of being embarrassed in public and affect men and women equally. Extreme social anxieties often start in childhood or adolescence and may be accompanied by other anxiety disorders or depression.
The origins of social anxiety disorders are not as well-understood as specific (or “isolated”) phobias, where a direct fear of injury from some specific animal, thing, or situation forms a clear basis for the fear. Even so, hereditary factors may be present, such as a genetic tendency to be “high strung”, nervous, etc.
In all kinds of phobias, external experiences and / or reports can further reinforce or develop the fear, such as seeing a family member or friend who is affected. In extreme cases, indirect exposures can be as remote as overhearing a reference in conversation, seeing something in the news, on TV, or in the movies.
Homophobia, like most phobias, stems from a subconscious overprotection mechanism, and as with many phobias can also be rooted in an unresolved emotional conflict.
Common adverse messages about homosexuality from family, society, and religion are likely factors due to prevalence, especially in strict cultures. Some religious organizations specifically teach prejudice and hatred of homosexuality.
Victims of rape, sexual assault, or an abusive childhood are more likely to develop a fear of homosexuals.
It is also possible that people are afraid of being confused about their own sexual desires. The possibility of embarrassment or shame about such feelings may lead to a defensive reaction and a desire to be firmly rooted in a heterosexual orientation.
Treatments for Homophobia
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
- Habit Strategies To Relax
- Cognitive Therapy (CT)
- In Vivo Exposure
- Response Prevention
- Group Therapy
- Energy Psychology